John McCarthy is widely recognized as the father of Artificial Intelligence.
John McCarthy was a Stanford Professor Emeritus of Computer Science. In 1955, McCarthy authored a proposal for a two-month, 10-person summer research conference on “artificial intelligence” – the first use of the term in publication.
McCarthy Invented the second oldest Computer programming language Lisp . Lisp programs define how to perform an algorithm on the expressions. Frames ,networks and objects are responsible for LISPs popularity in the AI community.
John McCarthy co-founded the MIT Artificial Intelligence Project and what became the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab, serving as director at Stanford from 1965 until 1980. While at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (SAIL ) In 1960, McCarthy authored a paper titled, “Programs with Common Sense”. John McCarthy was also vital in developing the concept of computer time-sharing in the late 50’s early 60’s while at SAIL.
John McCarthy was born on Sept. 4, 1927, in Boston. He earned his undergraduate degree from the California Institute of Technology in 1948 and his PhD at Princeton in 1951, both in mathematics.He was an instructor at Princeton from 1951 until 1953 when he came to Stanford as an assistant professor.In 1955, he left for Dartmouth and then for MIT before returning to Stanford for good in 1962 as a full professor of computer science. He retired Jan. 1, 2001.The Association of Computing Machinery honored McCarthy with the A. M. Turing Award in 1971, the highest recognition in computer science.
John McCarty died at his home in Stanford Monday, Oct. 24 2011 . He was 84.
John McCarthy defined Artificial Intelligence as : “The science and engineering of making intelligent machines , especially intelligent computer programs”.
Sourcre : https://steemit.com/artificial-intelligence/@poias/john-mccarthy-artificial-intelligence-forefather-september-4-1927-october-24-2011
Quotes of John McCarthy :
“If it takes 200 years to achieve artificial intelligence, and then finally there is a textbook that explains how its done, the hardest part of that textbook to write will be the part that explains why people didn’t think of it 200 years ago…”
We shall therefore say that a program has common sense if it automatically deduces for itself a sufficient wide class of immediate consequences of anything it is told and what it already knows. … Our ultimate objective is to make programs that learn from their experience as effectively as humans do.
“He who refuses to do arithmetic is doomed to talk nonsense.”
“Our ultimate objective is to make programs that learn from their experience as effectively as humans do. We shall … say that a program has common sense if it automatically deduces for itself a sufficient wide class of immediate consequences of anything it is told and what it already knows.“
[This] is or should be our main scientific activity — studying the structure of information and the structure of problem solving processes independently of applications and independently of its realization in animals or humans.
When we program a computer to make choices intelligently after determining its options, examining their consequences, and deciding which is most favorable or most moral or whatever, we must program it to take an attitude towards its freedom of choice essentially isomorphic to that which a human must take to his own
It’s difficult to be rigorous about whether a machine really ‘knows’, ‘thinks’, etc., because we’re hard put to define these things. We understand human mental processes only slightly better than a fish understands swimming.
Program designers have a tendency to think of the users as idiots who need to be controlled. They should rather think of their program as a servant, whose master, the user, should be able to control it. If designers and programmers think about the apparent mental qualities that their programs will have, they’ll create programs that are easier and pleasanter — more humane — to deal with.